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PerspectiveFundamentals of Public HealthFree Preview

Methods of Public Health Research — Strengthening Causal Inference from Observational Data

List of authors.
  • Miguel A. Hernán, M.D., Dr.P.H.

For researchers using observational data, a useful way to answer a causal question is to design the target trial that would answer it and then emulate its protocol. The example of the HIV-treatment-as-prevention strategy illustrates the benefits of this approach.

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Funding and Disclosures

Disclosure forms provided by the author are available at

This article was published on October 2, 2021, at

Author Affiliations

From the CAUSALab and the Departments of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston.

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