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PD-1 and PD-L1 Inhibitors as Salvage Therapy for Urothelial Carcinoma

List of authors.
  • Guru Sonpavde, M.D.

For more than two decades, the only therapy that was proven to extend overall survival among patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma was cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy.1 First-line cisplatin-based chemotherapy yields a median overall survival of 14 to 15 months, coupled with 5-year survival among 5 to 15% of patients. Historically, salvage chemotherapy with vinflunine or a taxane after the receipt of platinum-based chemotherapy has resulted in a response in only approximately 10% of patients, with a dismal median overall survival of 6 to 8 months.2,3 Vinflunine was approved in multiple countries on the basis of a phase 3 trial that . . .

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Funding and Disclosures

Disclosure forms provided by the author are available with the full text of this editorial at

This editorial was published on February 17, 2017, at

Author Affiliations

From the University of Alabama at Birmingham Comprehensive Cancer Center, Birmingham.