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Proof That Lower Is Better — LDL Cholesterol and IMPROVE-IT

List of authors.
  • John A. Jarcho, M.D.,
  • and John F. Keaney, Jr., M.D.

The so-called LDL hypothesis is the concept that excess low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a causal factor in the development of atherosclerotic vascular disease. By extension, this hypothesis also assumes that reducing LDL cholesterol levels, regardless of the means, should produce a corresponding reduction in cardiovascular events. Considerable evidence supports the LDL hypothesis, including animal studies and epidemiologic studies involving humans, as well as clinical trials of both statins and nonstatin lipid-modifying agents. In a meta-analysis that included more than 90,000 participants in 14 randomized trials of statins, the Cholesterol Treatment Trialists’ (CTT) collaborators found that, on average, a reduction . . .

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Funding and Disclosures

Disclosure forms provided by the authors are available with the full text of this article at

This article was published on June 3, 2015, at

Author Affiliations

From the University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA (J.F.K.).