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Review ArticleAdvances in Immunology

The HLA System

List of authors.
  • Jan Klein, Ph.D.,
  • and Akie Sato, Ph.D.

Deficiencies of HLA MoleculesA clinician's attention is normally drawn to a system only when it malfunctions. The HLA system is no exception in this regard, but in contrast to other systems, it also arouses interest when it functions well — too well, in fact. The most dramatic malfunction of the HLA system occurs when its genes falter in their expression, resulting in HLA class I or class II deficiencies (the bare lymphocyte syndrome, in which “bare” refers to the low level of HLA molecules on the cell surface). Severe cases of HLA deficiencies are, in fact, not caused by . . .

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Funding and Disclosures

We are indebted to Ms. Jane Kraushaar and Ms. Lynne Yakes for editorial assistance, and to Dr. Werner E. Mayer for help in selecting material for illustrations.

Author Affiliations

From the Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie, Abteilung Immungenetik, Tübingen, Germany.

Address reprint requests to Dr. Klein at the Max-Planck-Institut für Biologie, Abteilung Immungenetik, Corrensstr. 42, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany, or at .

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